Charity Reports

Teaching at the Right Level Africa

Published on
Written by
Sam Carter
Callum Calvert

Teaching at the Right Level (TaRL), a pedagogical approach based on teaching students at their actual learning levels, rather than the level recommended by the curriculum, is one of the most promising ways to improve education quality.1 TaRL Africa works with governments and other partners to adapt, embed and implement the TaRL approach within national or sub-national education systems in Africa.

What problem are they trying to solve?

Practitioners and funders interested in improving education can focus on either increasing access to education (i.e., increasing the number of years of schooling) or on increasing learning outcomes (e.g., test scores, literacy rates). Many education practitioners focus on improving learning outcomes for two primary reasons: First, enrolment rates have increased in many low- and middle-income countries over the past few decades, with 91 percent of primary-school-age children enrolled in school in 2015.2 Second, a growing body of evidence suggests that the quality of education, rather than the quantity, is the primary mechanism by which education leads to improved outcomes.3

TaRL Africa works to improve the quality of primary education on the African continent, where learning levels are lower than in other regions (see Figure 1), and where annual spending on education is low, ranging from $29.15 per student in Madagascar to $621.65 per student in Botswana, with an average government expenditure of $166.73 per student.4

Figure 1: Median percentage of students in late primary school who score above a minimum proficiency level on a learning assessment, by region

TaRL Africa Figure 1Source: “World Development Report 2018: Learning to Realize Education’s Promise” (World Bank Group, 2018), 8,

What do they do?

TaRL Africa aims to scale up the TaRL approach to reach at least 3 million students across the African continent by 2024, and potentially millions more in the future.6 The TaRL approach was developed by Pratham, one of the world’s leading education NGOs whose work focuses on serving children in India. Working with researchers associated with the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL), Pratham has evaluated multiple versions of TaRL implementation over the past two decades.

TaRL Africa is a formal joint venture of Pratham and J-PAL that was launched in 2019 to enable African governments and other partners to adapt, embed, and implement the TaRL approach within national or sub-national education systems. This initiative formalises work that J-PAL and Pratham have been implementing together on the African continent for the past three years, working with education leaders across Africa to understand local priorities and determine whether TaRL could help improve learning outcomes in specific contexts across the continent.7

While the precise nature of TaRL Africa’s work varies according to the needs and priorities of the government partners in each country, activities include:8

  • Generating government buy-in for the TaRL approach by providing relevant assessment data and connecting policymakers to classrooms
  • Co-designing content and training activities with government partners and co-delivering training
  • Co-designing monitoring tools and data systems, and training government staff on how to use these tools for ongoing monitoring and evaluation
  • Building financial models to incorporate the TaRL approach into future budget processes
  • Supporting highly effective partners (e.g., Young 1ove in Botswana, JICA in Madagascar and Niger) working with governments to carry out activities like those listed above

TaRL Africa is currently providing direct support to the governments of Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria and Zambia9 to scale the TaRL approach, and working with partner organisations to do so in Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Niger and Uganda. These countries were selected through a 15-country analysis by the TaRL Africa team, which assessed each country’s potential for scale and impact (including factors like government buy-in, donor interest and partner capabilities).10 According to our estimates, the TaRL approach currently reaches over 1.2 million students across the African continent. The plans outlined for each country on the TaRL Africa website suggest that the approach will reach an additional 6 million students per year once the approach is being implemented at scale.11

In addition to the support activities TaRL Africa and its selected partners provide to governments, TaRL Africa also aims to build a network of at least 500 TaRL “leaders of practice” across the African continent. Leaders of practice are instructors, government supervisors, NGO staff, or volunteers who have been trained in the TaRL approach and been involved in TaRL implementation. TaRL will host annual training workshops and other opportunities for TaRL implementers across the continent to exchange ideas and learnings with each other. TaRL Africa aspires for these leaders of practice to lead a movement across Africa aimed at ensuring children gain foundational reading and math skills.

Why do we recommend them?

  • The TaRL approach is one of the most promising strategies for improving education quality in low- and middle-income countries.
  • The TaRL Africa leadership team is uniquely well-placed to scale up this approach, building on decades of programme design, implementation and scaling by Pratham, along with J-PAL’s extensive experience conducting research and scaling evidence-informed programmes in education and other sectors.
  • According to our cost-effectiveness estimates, TaRL Africa brings about a total increase in test scores of between 2.1 and 12.7 standard deviations per US$100 donated to them, making it one of the most cost-effective opportunities to improve education that we’ve identified.
  • We have heard from many experts within the education sector that the COVID-19 pandemic, and resulting school closures, has increased the need for investing in the TaRL approach.

Evidence supports the TaRL approach

As discussed in our education cause report, TaRL is one of the most promising solutions to improving education quality that we have identified. Multiple high-quality studies have found that the TaRL approach is an effective way to improve learning outcomes, in most cases increasing test scores by 0.1 to 0.3 standard deviations per student, with impact estimates as high as 0.7 standard deviations in one evaluation.12 For comparison: improving someone’s SAT scores by 0.3 standard deviations would give them 70 extra points on the SAT; improving someone’s height by 0.3 standard deviations would increase it by an inch.

A strong and experienced team

Because TaRL Africa is a formalisation of a multi-year collaboration between J-PAL and Pratham, the team builds on both organisations’ experience designing, evaluating, adapting and scaling impactful education programmes. Pratham is one of India’s largest education NGOs, established in 1995 to improve the quality of education in India. Pratham developed the TaRL approach in the early 2000s and has collaborated with researchers, governments and other partners to refine, adapt and scale the approach to reach over 60 million students throughout India and Africa.13 J-PAL is a global research centre working to reduce poverty by ensuring that policy is informed by scientific evidence. Based at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and anchored by a network of 194 affiliated professors at universities around the world, J-PAL conducts randomised impact evaluations to answer critical questions in the fight against poverty. J-PAL Africa, based at the University of Cape Town, conducts randomised evaluations, builds partnerships for evidence-informed policymaking, and helps partners scale up effective programmes in sub-Saharan Africa.

J-PAL Africa’s work to scale the TaRL approach began with a collaboration with Zambia’s Ministry of General Education, which aimed to develop a remedial education programme, called “Catch Up” for Zambian primary schools. Pratham, J-PAL and other partners (including the international research organisation Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA) and the international nonprofit VVOB) worked with the Ministry to visit Pratham’s programmes in India, design and pilot three versions of TaRL that could be appropriate for the Zambian context, and conduct a rigorous process evaluation of the pilot programme to assess which version would be most viable for scale. After the pilot programme, the United States Agency for International Development provided funds to scale up the most promising version to 1,800 schools across Zambia.14,15

High cost-effectiveness of donations

According to our cost-effectiveness calculation, which can be found here, TaRL Africa brings about a total increase in test scores of between 2.1 and 12.7 standard deviations for each $100 donated to them. This suggests that TaRL Africa is at least as cost-effective as, and potentially substantially more cost-effective than, the other charities that we recommend in the area of education.

This calculation estimates the total expected improvement in learning outcomes in each of the countries that TaRL Africa has worked in, by estimating:

  • The number of additional students reached: We based our estimate of the potential reach in each country on the total number of students in the target populations. (See ‘Scale Potential’ tab).
  • The probability of success of reaching those students: We based our estimate of the chance of success of scale up on country-specific factors, including whether the government has publicly discussed plans to scale the TaRL approach, successfully scaled up an evidence-informed programme in the past, or has already carried out a pilot. (See ‘Success Probability Inputs’ tab).
  • The expected learning gain for each student reached: We estimated the learning gain for a student reached by the programme by choosing the studies from the TaRL literature that are most similar to the version of TaRL being scaled up, and averaging their effect sizes. (See ‘TaRL Studies’ tab).
  • The proportion of the overall impact of the programme that is attributable to TaRL Africa’s involvement: We estimated the impact attributable to TaRL Africa’s involvement based on TaRL Africa’s role in the scale-up. In some countries, TaRL Africa provides a support function to implementing partners focused on scaling up the programme, whereas in others TaRL Africa is the main coordinator of efforts to scale up the TaRL approach with the government. In countries where TaRL Africa plays a supporting role to existing implementing partners, the programme would have existed without its involvement. In these countries, we have assumed an ‘attributability adjustment’ of 40%. In countries where TaRL Africa is the main coordinator, we have assumed that the entire impact is attributable to TaRL Africa because in these countries TaRL Africa was the initiator of the programme and we believe that there were no other plans to introduce the TaRL approach within these countries.

This calculation does not include other benefits from TaRL Africa's work: First, we have not attempted to estimate the benefits of the TaRL Africa’s community of leaders of practice, who have the potential to increase the reach of the TaRL approach beyond the countries where TaRL Africa is devoting significant resources. Second, we have not attempted to estimate the benefits of TaRL Africa’s research on different TaRL implementation models, which have the potential to inform education policy in many countries beyond the places TaRL Africa is currently working. Our cost estimate does, however, include all of TaRL Africa’s projected operating costs, some of which will be used to establish and grow the leader of practice community, and some of which will contribute to answering the questions on their research agenda. This suggests that our cost-effectiveness estimate is biassed downwards.

For this evaluation, we have not attempted to convert improved learning outcomes into increased income later in life, as we did for the other organisations included in the education report. We believe that successful implementation of the TaRL approach at a national scale, or a scale sufficiently large to increase the skills of the average individual within an economy, is likely to lead to improvements in overall productivity and economic growth.16 However, we were not able to find estimates with sufficient certainty to make realistic projections into the future.

Increased demand for TaRL due to COVID-19

We have heard from many leaders in the education sector that the COVID-19 pandemic has made investing in the TaRL approach more urgent than ever. Experts predict that school closures will exacerbate existing inequalities in terms of access to and ability to benefit from education, within and across countries.17 Bilateral and multilateral support for education in low- and middle-income countries is also predicted to fall in the wake of the pandemic,18 and both government and household resources in sub-Saharan Africa will remain heavily constrained for the foreseeable future.19 Maximising the impacts of schooling on student learning will be a crucial piece of government attempts to recover from the pandemic in both the short and long run.

Why do we trust this organisation?

Our evaluation of TaRL Africa builds on substantial work carried out by Co-Impact, “a global philanthropic collaborative supporting locally-rooted coalitions working to achieve impact at scale in the Global South.” Co-Impact’s first fund brought together more than 40 funders from over a dozen countries to pool hundreds of millions of dollars – with shared values and an aligned vision of what it really takes to achieve large-scale change.20

Co-Impact supports coalitions of organisations in the Global South working in the areas of education, health and/or economic opportunity. Co-Impact’s work with grantees (called Program Partners) involves large, flexible and long-term grants to support partners to transform underlying systems – to achieve equitable and inclusive impact at scale in the Global South.21 Co-Impact’s grantmaking emphasises both evidence of programme effectiveness and the likelihood of achieving policy success, which gives us confidence that TaRL Africa is likely to effect policy change. In addition to TaRL Africa, Co-Impact’s Program Partners from its first round of grantmaking include:22

  • Liberia’s National Community Health Assistant Program;
  • Project ECHO, which aims to transform healthcare for millions of people in India by building digital connections between frontline healthcare providers and specialists in distant medical centres; and
  • A coalition of organisations working to scale up the “graduation approach” (the approach used by Bandhan and Village Enterprise, two of the funding opportunities recommended in our women’s empowerment cause report) in India, Latin America and more widely.

We are very grateful for the information and collaborative, open spirit that the Co-Impact team has brought to this project. While our process often demands a substantial time commitment from the charities we evaluate, Co-Impact’s willingness to engage with our requests for information and introductions allowed us to minimise the burden we imposed on the TaRL Africa team.

As discussed above, we are confident that the TaRL Africa leadership team is well-placed to carry out this work.

What would they do with more funding?

TaRL Africa informed us that they would use additional funding in one of two ways:

First, they could use additional funding to hire the staff and fund related costs that would allow them to expand into new countries or sub-national areas. For example, TaRL Africa informed us that they would need about US$200,000 to establish a team that could provide technical assistance to a state government in Nigeria. Likewise, they require similar funding to respond to a government request to support a TaRL-inspired programme in Kenya. These cases offer large opportunities for leverage, as governments themselves are funding the programme-implementation costs. In addition, they provide examples to other governments of how TaRL programmes can be government-driven and owned, with technical assistance pulled in to ensure contextually appropriate design and quality programme delivery.

Second, they could use additional funding to continue building their organisational strength. While Co-Impact has provided funding to support the initial stages of TaRL Africa’s work, the organisation is actively fundraising to ensure its long-term sustainability. Additional funding would allow TaRL Africa to continue to build their team on the African continent so that thought and programme leadership in the region develops and grows over time. This should make for better programmatic outcomes and enable further outreach to potential government and other partners to increase the reach of the TaRL approach.

According to the information shared with us by Co-Impact, TaRL Africa could productively absorb at least US$10 million by 2024 to support continued expansion of their work, development of the TaRL “leaders of practice” community, and high-quality research on the optimal TaRL implementation models.

What are the major open questions?

Long-run benefits of education

As discussed in our education cause report, the long-term benefits of education are less certain than the benefits of global health interventions. There is relatively limited high-quality evidence providing credible links from education to outcomes later in life (e.g., health, household income). This is not to say that we believe education does not lead to positive outcomes later in life, but that we are unable to confidently predict how large those positive impacts will be.23

In addition to uncertainties about the impacts of improvements to education for the individual student, this evaluation raised a question about quantifying the impacts of improving, in many cases, the entire primary school system within a country. Many of the plausible pathways by which increased education translates into increased income assume that increased skills lead to improved job prospects and performance. Because TaRL Africa operates with the national or, in some cases, sub-national governments, all students in a particular age cohort will experience the learning gains brought about by the programme. This means that returns to individual students may come through economy-wide improvements in productivity, rather than micro-level improvements in employment opportunities. Given these substantial uncertainties, we have not attempted to convert predicted improvements in test scores into predicted increases in income, as we believe that the resulting estimate would be so imprecise as to be essentially meaningless. We will return to this question as additional evidence becomes available on the long-run impacts of improvements in the quality of primary education.

Impact of counterfactual government spending

We are also uncertain about how to account for government spending related to the implementation of TaRL Africa. If TaRL programmes successfully scale up, then it will cause governments to spend funds on these programmes, which would otherwise be spent on other government programmes. This could potentially reduce the impact of donations to TaRL Africa (or any nonprofit that leverages government funds), although we believe that the programmes that would otherwise receive government funding would have less impact-per-dollar than implementing a contextually-appropriate version of the TaRL approach. In this evaluation, we have not attempted to account for this.

Linearity of returns to investment in TaRL Africa

An additional uncertainty is whether there are decreasing or increasing returns to donating to TaRL Africa, and how to account for this. We often assume linear returns to donations; i.e., each dollar donated to TaRL Africa is equally useful. However, there may be reasons that funding received earlier is actually more or less valuable than funding received later. The TaRL Africa team told us that their resource allocation decisions are made based on a combination of three major factors: where there is the most need for their support, where there is the most government buy-in for their partnership, and where the student population is the largest.

On the one hand, we would usually expect organisations to have decreasing returns because we expect them to spend early funding on the most useful or easiest-to-implement projects. In this case, for example, TaRL Africa is likely to be well-placed to choose the most appropriate countries to initially expand in. This might mean that as they expand to other countries later on, these may be more challenging environments.

On the other hand, TaRL Africa may also have increasing returns, as the team learns with experience, the global evidence base for education grows, and the TaRL approach becomes more widely accepted and demanded across the African continent. This would mean that TaRL Africa is able to spend funds that it receives later more effectively.

We are uncertain about how to account for these factors. In our cost-effectiveness calculation, we have carried out an estimate based on assuming linear returns and an estimate that attempts to account for decreasing returns. These can be found on tabs ‘CEA 1 - FP Projections, Average $’ and ‘CEA 1 - FP Projections, Marginal $’, respectively.


We are very grateful to the people who provided advice and feedback on this report, including:

  • Luis Crouch, Senior Economist, International Development Group, RTI International
  • Michelle Holmes, Foundation Director, Atlassian Foundation
  • Ashleigh Morrell, Associate Director of Policy, J-PAL Africa
  • Sophie Pelland
  • Lant Pritchett, RISE Research Director, Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford
  • Laura Poswell, Executive Director, J-PAL Africa
  • Robert Rogers, Senior Policy Associate, J-PAL Global
  • Fabian Suwanprateep, Manager, Philanthropic Collaboration, Co-Impact
  • Titus Syengo, Managing Director, TaRL Africa

Message from the organisation

Message from Titus Syengo, TaRL Africa Managing Director

I joined TaRL Africa as Managing Director in May 2020. After a career working in the development sector across Africa, I was captivated by the opportunity to work on an issue that has so centrally shaped my own path, enabling me to grow from a small boy herding cattle in rural Kenya, to the Regional Director of a global Health Organisation. I have always been grateful for the quality of schooling and support for learning I received, once my father agreed to enrol me in school at age 9. Today, being afforded the opportunity to learn basic reading or mathematics is still too often the exception, rather than the rule, for millions of children in Africa.

Each member of the TaRL Africa team is driven by our core mission to ensure children acquire foundational skills. Supported by the rich evidence base showing effectiveness, we are able to work with partners to develop programs that make sense in their contexts, building off a proven core model. I am heartened and energised to be part of a team of such creativity, integrity, humility, diversity, flexibility and hunger to continually learn and improve. Most importantly, I am excited by the possibilities TaRL Africa presents for the children of our region. Thank you for caring about our children’s education in Africa and for considering TaRL Africa as a worthwhile funding opportunity.

More resources

Disclaimer: We do not have a reciprocal relationship with any charity, and recommendations are subject to change based on our ongoing research.


  1. “Based on the evidence presented in this section, we ultimately think that the most promising interventions are 'Teaching at the Right Level' interventions, which consist of calibrating education more precisely to the level of the student, and salt iodisation, which is an effective way to reduce iodine deficiency and its harmful cognitive effects.” Callum Calvert, “Cause Area Report: Education” (Founders Pledge, December 20, 2019),  

  2. The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL), “Reducing Costs to Increase School Participation,” The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL), February 2019,  

  3. Eric A. Hanushek et al., “Education and Economic Growth,” Education Next (blog), February 29, 2008,; Eric A. Hanushek and Ludger Woessman, “Education and Economic Growth,” in Economics of Education, ed. Dominic J. Brewer and Patrick J. McEwan, 1st ed. (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010), 60–67,; Michelle Kaffenberger and Lant Pritchett, “Failing to Plan? Estimating the Impact of Achieving Schooling Goals on Cohort Learning” (Research on Improving Systems of Education (RISE), May 12, 2020),  

  4. UNESCO, “UNESCO Institute for Statistics,” UIS.Stat, accessed August 13, 2020,  

  5. Adapted from figure O.5. Minimum proficiency in mathematics is benchmarked to the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study assessment and in reading to the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study assessment. Minimum proficiency in mathematics means that students have some basic mathematical knowledge such as adding or subtracting whole numbers, recognizing familiar geometric shapes, and reading simple graphs and tables. Minimum proficiency in reading means that students can locate and retrieve explicitly stated detail when reading literary texts and can locate and reproduce explicitly stated information from the beginning of informational texts.  

  6. Co-Impact, “Strengthening African Education Systems: Accelerating Learning for All Children,” Co-Impact Grant Opportunity (Co-Impact, 2019).  

  7. Co-Impact.  

  8. Co-Impact.  

  9. In close partnership with VVOB.  

  10. Co-Impact, “Strengthening African Education Systems: Accelerating Learning for All Children.”  

  11. See the “Scale Potential” tab of our cost-effectiveness analysis for more details and sources.  

  12. For a definition of standard deviation as an indicator of learning, and a discussion of its benefits and drawbacks, please see section 1.2.2 of Callum Calvert, “Cause Area Report: Education” (Founders Pledge, December 20, 2019),  

  13. Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL), “Teaching at the Right Level to Improve Learning,” The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL), accessed August 13, 2020,  

  14. Samantha Carter and Claire Walsh, “Increasing the Use of Data and Evidence in Real-World Policy: Stories from J-PAL’s Government Partnership Initiative,” The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL), January 16, 2018,  

  15. This partnership, and the role played by J-PAL’s Innovation in Government Initiative, is described in detail in Appendix 4 of our evidence-based policy cause area report, available at  

  16. Eric A. Hanushek et al., “Education and Economic Growth,” Education Next (blog), February 29, 2008,  

  17. “Without targeted, evidenced interventions, the gap between rich and poor children—which will have widened considerably during the months of school closure—will continue to grow.” Shelby Carvalho and Susannah Hares, “Six Ways COVID-19 Will Shape the Future of Education,” Center For Global Development (blog), July 22, 2020, href="">; “The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting school closures will likely only exacerbate these low learning outcomes; in fact, the World Bank estimates that globally the pandemic could result in a loss of between 0.3 and 0.9 years of schooling adjusted for quality.”Molly Curtiss, “Adapting to Learning Needs in the Wake of COVID-19 Using Data and Evidence,” Brookings (blog), August 11, 2020,  

  18. “As donor countries reallocate funds to deal with increased unemployment and enterprise bankruptcies, aid volumes will inevitably be reduced – not least because some of the donors will suffer the consequences of reduced revenues from taxes or natural resources… Donor priorities may shift to health or other emergency priorities. International student mobility, which accounts for US$3.1 billion of total aid to education, will be curtailed. Even without these final two effects, aid to education levels may not return to 2018 levels for another six years.” Global Education Monitoring Report, “COVID-19 Is a Serious Threat to Aid to Education Recovery,” Policy Paper (UNESCO, July 2020),, p. 12.  

  19. Samer Al-Samarrai, “The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Education Financing,” Text/HTML (Washington, DC: World Bank Group, May 12, 2020),; International Monetary Fund, “Sub-Saharan Africa Regional Economic Outlook Update, June 2020: A Cautious Reopening” (International Monetary Fund, June 2020),  

  20. “Co-Impact,” Co-Impact, accessed September 28, 2020,  

  21. More detail on Co-Impact’s values, theory of change, and approach to grant-making are described in the Co-Impact Handbook, available at  

  22. For the full list of Co-Impact’s Program Partners please refer to  

  23. Please see section 3.5 of Calvert 2019 for further discussion of this issue and our perspective on when donors should focus on education, relative to health or economic empowerment.  

Sam Carter


Sam cares deeply about creating circumstances that will allow all people to achieve their potential. Her career has focused on the intersection of rigorous research with context-specific needs and constraints, including roles at the World Bank’s Development Research Group and the US Embassy in Peru.

Most recently, Sam spent over three years at J-PAL, an MIT-based research group that aims to reduce poverty by ensuring that policies are informed by scientific evidence.

Callum Calvert


Callum joined the Founders Pledg team in spring 2018 in the Research Team, before moving into the Impact Analytics team in 2020. Before joining Founders Pledge, Callum worked as a quantitative analyst at a hedge fund. He holds a First Class MMath in Mathematics from the University of Warwick.